The Roman Republic: Part Two | World History Review
The Roman Republic existed from 509 B.C. (with the ending of the monarchy in Rome) to 27 B.C. (with the rise to power of the first Emperor). As Rome continued to expand, greater class conflicts developed between the rich and the poor. In 60 B.C. the famous general Julius Ceasar formed a 3-person alliance to govern Rome. This was a change from the former 2 consuls who ruled Rome. Julius Caesar governed with Crassus and Pompey. These three rulers lead a military campaign against Gaul (modern day France) and won. They became very wealthy from the spoils of this war. Crassus died in battle, leaving just Caesar and Pompey to rule. Caesar pushed Pompey out and proclaimed himself Dictator-for-life. A group of senators opposed Caesar’s exclusive claim to power and banded together. This group was led by Marcus Brutus and assassinated Caesar in 44 B.C. This lead to a great deal of chaos in Rome. Out of this chaos, a new 3-person alliance called the Triumverate arose to rule the republic. The three were: Marc Antony (one of Caesar’s generals), Octavius (Caesar’s nephew and heir), and Marcus Lepidus (who remained unimportant and ineffective). These three decided to split up and govern from different places. Octavius stayed in Rome and Marc Antony went to Egypt. Octavius and Antony were in constant disagreement which eventually culminated in Octavius marching on Egypt to conquer it and remove Antony. When it was clear that Octavius had won, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide. In 27 B.C. Octavius (who was named Augustus by the Roman Senate) became the first Roman Emperor.
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Last updated: 06/11/2018
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