# Overview of pH Levels

Hey guys, welcome to this video on pH levels.

The pH value of a solution is a measure of its acidity. Most solutions have a pH value between 0 and 14 on the pH scale.

Solutions with a pH value of 7, at the middle of the pH scale, are called neutral. If a solution has a pH value smaller than 7, it’s called acidic. If the pH value is larger than 7, the solution is called basic or alkaline. For instance, vinegar has a pH value of 2.4 and is acidic, pure water has a pH value of 7 and is neutral, and household bleach has a pH value of 13 and is basic.

Note a solution that is more acidic has a smaller pH value. That has to do with the definition of pH. Generally, the acidity of a solution is defined by the concentration of hydronium ions in it. The higher the concentration of hydronium ions, the more acidic the solution. For instance, a solution with a 0.5 M concentration of hydronium ions is more acidic than a solution with a 0.05 M concentration of hydronium ions.

Let’s look at a few common substances and where they fall on the pH scale.

• Battery acid, a very corrosive substance, is a strong acid, therefore it falls on the lower end of the pH scale with a pH of approximately 1.
• The gastric juices in your stomach, which help you to digest food, are acidic, too, with a pH value somewhere between 1.5 and 3.
• Lemon juice contains a citric acid and has a pH value of 2 to 3, just like vinegar.
• Most soft drinks are quite acidic with pH values between 2.5 and 4. This is one of the reasons dentists don’t want you to drink soft drinks: the acid in soft drinks dissolves the enamel of your teeth. Milk is a lot better for your teeth, with a pH of approximately 6.5.
• Rainwater is somewhat acidic, with a pH of approximately 5. However, industrial pollutants can make rainwater more acidic, with a pH value anywhere between 2 and 4, which can be damaging to plant life.
• Pure water is neutral with a pH of 7.
• Blood is slightly basic, with a pH value of 7.4.
• Seawater has a pH value of approximately 8.
• Solutions of baking soda are mildly basic with a pH value of 8.4, therefore baking soda is used to clean up small acid spills in chemistry labs.
• Soapy water has a pH value of 9 to 10, which helps to remove the grease from your skin or from dirty dishes.
• Just as strongly acidic solutions pose hazards, so does strongly basic solutions. Lye, oven cleaner and household bleach have a pH value of approximately 13, so be careful around them.
• Thanks for watching this overview of pH levels. See you guys next time!

## Frequently Asked Questions

### What is pH?

#### A

pH is a measure of how acidic or basic an aqueous solution is based on the amount of hydrogen ions in the substance.

### What does pH stand for?

#### A

pH stands for “potential of hydrogen.”

### What is pH balance?

#### A

pH balance refers to the levels or ratio of acids and bases in your body at which your body functions best.

### What is the pH of water?

#### A

The pH of pure water is 7, which is considered neutral.

### How do you calculate pH?

#### A

To calculate a solution’s pH you must know the concentration (molarity) of hydronium ions (H3O+). From there you multiply -log10 by the molar hydrogen ion concentration.

### What does pH measure?

#### A

pH measures how acidic or basic a solution is based on its hydrogen ion content.

### What is a pH scale?

#### A

The pH scale is a range from 0 to 14 used to interpret the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. 7 is considered neutral, while values above 7 are basic and values below 7 are acidic.