Human Anatomy


The major bones of the body include, but are not limited to, the skull, mandible, clavicle, scapula, spinal vertebrae, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, pelvis, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, and metatarsals.

The various classes of joints include but are not limited to: A pivot joint (C1 and C2 of the neck) provides rotation of one bone around another. A hinge joint (elbow) provides flexion and extension. A saddle joint (between the carpal and metacarpal of the thumb) provides flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduction. A ball and socket joint (hip) provides flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal and external rotation.

Bones form a strong framework which supports the body. The bones also help to protect vital areas of the body such as the lungs and heart. Although bones are incredibly strong, they also manage to be very light. This helps to not weigh down the body with increased and unnecessary mass.

Now that we’ve covered the bones and joints, let’s touch on the Cardiovascular system.

The major structures of the cardiovascular system include blood vessels (arteries, arterioles, veins, venules), the heart, superior and inferior vena cava, aorta, left and right atrium, left and right ventricle, mitral valve, tricuspid valve, aortic valve, pulmonary valve.

The cardiovascular system is responsible for pumping five liters of blood through the body at any given time. The cardiovascular system has several different functions. It serves to remove metabolic waste from the body. At the same time, the cardiovascular system serves to provide much-needed nutrients to the body. It also provides protection from foreign microbes and viruses through the function of the white blood cells. Finally, the cardiovascular system helps keep our bodies in a state of homeostasis by controlling body temperature, pH balance, and water retention of cells.

Exercises focused on the cardiovascular system will help to strengthen the heart. The heart is a muscle that needs to be strengthened through regular exercise just like any other muscle in our bodies. It is important to give the heart a good workout alongside the other areas in our bodies.

The respiratory system includes larynx, trachea, lungs (right and left), pleural cavity, pleural membrane, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. Human respiration is a four-step process involving breathing, which brings oxygen in the form of air into the lungs; external respiration, where oxygen (from the blood) and carbon dioxide are exchanged within the alveoli; internal respiration, where excess carbon dioxide is carried away from the lungs by the blood; and cellular respiration, where oxygen is used to break down sugar within the cells to produce water, ATP, energy, and carbon dioxide.

The amount of oxygen being transported throughout the body increases during exercise. The veins will constrict in order to return more blood back to the heart. This blood also takes away carbon dioxide from the muscles.

The three different types of muscle tissue are cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle. Cardiac muscle is found in the heart. Smooth muscle is generally found in the organs, for instance, the liver or kidneys. Skeletal muscle is generally found in the muscles, for example, the deltoid or trapezius. Both cardiac and smooth muscle are under involuntary control from the central nervous system, while skeletal muscle is striated in appearance and under voluntary control from the CNS.

In a broad sense, having stronger muscles helps us to have greater strength. But, muscles do much more than just helping us to lift a heavier weight. They can help fight obesity and can even protect against disease by regulating available protein in the body.

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by Mometrix Test Preparation | Last Updated: January 14, 2021