NCLEX Review: AIDS Infections and Malignancies

Nurses need to be knowledgeable of HIV and AIDS infections. This NCLEX review video will explain how HIV affects the immune system, the 3 stages of HIV, and symptoms, including opportunistic infections caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. We’ll talk about HIV-related cancer, treatment options, and patient education.

AIDS Infections and Malignancies | NCLEX Review 2018

NCLEX AIDS Infections & Malignancies Infographic

What you need to know about AIDS

Important Terms & Details You Need to Know About AIDS Infections & Malignancies

HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus – acquired infection that causes severe immune dysfunction

AIDS: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome – condition that develops when the immune system has been severely damaged by HIV

3 Stages of HIV:

  1. Primary (acute) phase
  2. Chornic asymptomatic disease
  3. AIDS

Opportunistic infections: pathogens that take the opportunity to produce disease when the immune system is weak, caused by:

  1. Viruses:
    1. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
    2. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2
  2. Fungus
    1. Histoplasmosis
    2. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
    3. Cryptococcosis
    4. Candidiasis
  3. Bacteria
    1. Salmonella
    2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    3. Recurrent bacterial pneumonia
    4. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)
  4. Protozoa
    1. Cryptosporidium
    2. Toxoplasma gondii

  • Main Signs and Symptoms:
    1. Pulmonary infection
    2. Chills & fever
    3. Malaise
    4. Fatigue & lethargy
    5. Night sweats
    6. Cough
    7. Dyspnea
    8. Confusion
    9. Headache
    10. Enlarged lymph nodes
    11. Stiff neck
    12. Progressing edema
    13. Seizures
    14. Skin rash
    15. Oral lesions

    AIDS-defining malignancies:

    1. Kaposi sarcoma
    2. Non-hodgkin’s lymphoma
    3. Cervical cancer

    Treatment for AIDS: HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) – combination of at least 3 drugs that suppress HIV replication in the body

    NCLEX Questions

    Provided by: Mometrix Test Preparation

    Last updated: 01/15/2018


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