What is Titration?
Titration is a technique to determine the concentration of an unknown solution. This unknown solution is usually going to be an acid or a base. Titration isn’t the name of a chemical or anything. It’s just this process for using this technique in order to determine the concentration of this unknown solution. There are some solutions out there, which we call a standard solution. We know what that solution is. We know the chemical makeup of it.
We take known volumes of the standard solution and we add those to the unknown solution. While the volumes of the standard solution are being added to the unknown solution, it’s important to measure the pH of the solution, because eventually the standard solution is going to neutralize the unknown solution. It’s eventually going to neutralize that unknown solution. When that happens, the pH of the unknown will change rapidly. We call this the end point of titration.
This is the end point of this technique we were using, because the standard solution neutralizes the unknown solution. At that point, the pH of the unknown is changing rapidly, so that signals the end point of titration. It signals that this process, this technique, is over. By knowing the amount of standard added to reach the endpoint, remember we said we’re going to add known volumes.
Because we know the amount of standard added to reach the end point, the moles of the unknown neutralized can be calculated. The moles of the unknown neutralized and the volume of the unknown helps us determine the concentration of the unknown. If you had trouble following me on that last part, I’ll go through it again. We know the amount of standard added to reach the end point. Because of that we, can calculate the moles of the unknown neutralized.
Then, we take the moles of the unknown neutralized along with the volume of the unknown and we can determine the concentration of the unknown. That’s how the titration technique is used to determine the concentration of an unknown solution.