Medical Drug Side Effects Mnemonics

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                                                       Mnemonics of drug side effects


Pharmacology can be overwhelming, so we’re going to look at some mnemonics to help with remembering the side effects of a few drugs.

Morphine side effects
Morphine is an opioid analgesic (narcotic) that is used to treat moderate to severe pain. It has several side effects & can cause addiction, overdose, or death if misused. Remember the following common side effects of MORPHINE:
     Miosis (constriction of the pupil)
     Out of it (sedation)
     Respiratory depression
     Pruritus (common) & Pneumonia
     Hypotension & Headache
     Infrequency (referring to urinary retention or constipation)
     Nausea
     Emesis


Complications of oral birth control pills “ACHES”
Many women experience side effects from birth control pills such as irregular periods, nausea, or weight change. However, if any of these more serious side effects occur, emergency care is recommended as they may signify a serious condition.
Remember “ACHES” for the complications of oral birth control pills:
     Abdominal pain
     Chest pain - shortness of breath
     Headaches (sudden/severe/persistent) - possibly caused by CVA or increase BP 
     Eye problems - stemming from an increase in BP or vascular accident
     Severe leg pain - thromboembolism


Lidocaine toxicity “SAMS”
Lidocaine is an antiarrhythmic used in the acute management of ventricular arrhythmias & acute MI. Lidocaine can be toxic if administered inappropriately and in some cases may cause adverse reactions even when administered properly.
Remember “SAMS” for signs & symptoms of lidocaine toxicity:
     Slurred or difficult speech - paresthesias, numbness of lips/tongue
     Altered CNS - drowsiness, dizziness, restlessness, confusion, arrhythmias
     Muscle twitching - tremors
     Seizures - convulsions, respiratory depression, respiratory & cardiac arrest


Atropine overdose
Atropine is an anticholinergic that is used to treat bradycardia, reduce salivation & bronchial secretions before surgery, and as an antidote for overdose of cholinergic drugs or mushroom poisoning.
Watch for signs & symptoms of overdose to include the following:
     Hot as a hare - increased body temperature
     Blind as a bat - dilated pupils & blurry vision
     Dry as a bone - dry mouth, dry skin, dry eyes
     Red as a beet - flushed face, lightheadedness or fainting
     Mad as a hatter - confusion, anxiety, rapid HR, headache


Adverse side effects of Corticosteroids.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are used to suppress an overactive and unwanted immune response – decreasing swelling, redness, itching, & allergic reactions. However, they also have side effects that can be very serious, typically presenting as drug-induced Cushing’s syndrome.
Remember “CUSHINGOID”
Corticosteroids: adverse side effects: CUSHINGOID
     Cataracts
     Ulcers
     Striae, skin thinning
     Hypertension / Hirsutism / buffalo Hump
     Immunosuppression, infections
     Necrosis of femoral heads (death of bone tissue due to lack of blood supply)
     Glucose elevation
     Osteoporosis, obesity (including classic ‘moon face’)
     Impaired wound healing
     Diabetes, depression/mood changes


These numerous side effects of corticosteroids are the result of their diverse effects on numerous organ systems.

 

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