Best Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Examples
Inductive reasoning is when the writer takes specific facts and details and uses them to draw conclusions. This kind of reasoning can be probable, but not always true. For example, a child may grow up with 3 brown dogs and assume that all dogs are brown. This child is using inductive reasoning; however, it is not true that all dogs are brown, just all the dogs the child has known. That is an example of an improbable inductive reasoning. A probable inductive reasoning would be saying that football linemen are big. Ted is a lineman; therefore, Ted is big. While this is most likely true, it may not be. Ted may be small, but very strong and can perform well as a lineman. Deductive Reasoning is when the writer starts with a conclusion and then presents facts, details, and examples. For example, all trouts are fish. All fish have gills; therefore, all trouts have gills. Because the premises are true the conclusion is also true. If the premises are not all true then the conclusion is usually not true either.
Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
Hey guys, welcome to this video over inductive and deductive reasoning.
Inductive and deductive reasoning often times get mistaken for one another, but the differences are pretty crucial to understand. One type of reasoning guarantees a right conclusion, and the other type gives you a “well most likely” kind of answer. Part of the reason these two types of reasonings get confused is, because a lot of us will have used the type of reasoning that gives us the “well most likely” conclusion but try and pass it off as a guaranteed right conclusion. There are multiple problems with doing this, but one of the problems with doing this is that it has seemed to muddy the right understanding and use of these two reasonings.
So, let’s define each reasoning, and look at some examples.
First, deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning begins with a premise that is valid to reinforce or develop a right and official conclusion. When working out math problems you are using deductive reasoning.
Here is an example of deductive reasoning that is not Math:
All living things need water to survive.
Frogs are a living organism.
Therefore, frogs need water to survive.
You can see, in each of these examples, the conclusion is built on an objectively true premise, and minor premise. Deductive reasoning is commonly referred to as top-down logical, and this name helps to give us a really helpful, I think at least, visual of how deductive reasoning works.
So, you have a pyramid.
You start with a general truth. Which is at the bottom of the pyramid.
Then, you move to a premise that fits within that general truth, but is a little more specific.
Maybe you want to include another true premise that fits within the general truth.
Lastly, you end with your conclusion.
It may be helpful to think if it as beginning with generalities, and ending with a very specific conclusion. When using deductive reasoning your conclusion is guaranteed to be true as long as your premises are also true.
For example, when you have specific data, and you move to make a general conclusion based on that specific data.
Here are a couple examples of inductive reasoning:
You’re a soccer player and you’re tall, therefore all soccer players must be tall.
All of my brothers are athletic, therefore all boys are athletic.
You can see in each of these examples how, it starts out very specific, and moves to a generality.
Inductive reasoning is commonly referred to as bottom-up reasoning, because it starts out trying to prove a specific conclusion from the get-go.
So, let’s look at our triangle again, except this time we start from the top and work our way to the bottom.
Inductive reasoning will start with a conclusion.
Then, move to a specific instance.
Perhaps, a second specific instance will be provided.
Finally, a generalization is made from the specific instances.
When using inductive reasoning you are, at best, guaranteed a probable conclusion.
I hope that this video over inductive and deductive reasoning helped to clear up any confusion.
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Provided by: Mometrix Test Preparation
Last updated: 05/29/2018
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