The late 20th century and early 21st century marked the beginning of globalization for many European nations. In 1992 the European Union was established thanks to the Maastricht Treaty. After the Velvet Revolution, which lasted from 1989-1993, allowed Slovakia to gain independence. What was known as Czechoslovakia then became the Czech Republic. Around this time there was much strife among the former U.S.S.R. until Boris Yeltsin took over. Chechnya tried to gain independence in 1994, but was not able thanks to Russia sending troops to prevent this change. Due to a lot of this conflict, many powers wanted to focus on instilling international peace. President Clinton of the U.S. helped do this by helping set up a peace agreement between the rebels in Britain and Northern Ireland in 1998. The Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland all followed this idea of establishing a peace among eastern and western Europe by joining NATO in 1999. In this same year, Yeltsin was dealing with rising conflicts with Chechnya. He was eventually replaced by Vladimir Putin and conflicts with Chechnya eventually ceased. In 2002, the International Criminal Court was created. During these years the Soviet states started to change from a command economy to a market economy. This was not a smooth change and many are still economically depressed.
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Last updated: 12/29/2017
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