Childhood Immunizations and Schedule
Childhood Immunizations and Schedule
Hi, and welcome to this video on Childhood Immunization. We’re going to look at what ages different vaccines should be administered to children.
The act of immunization is something we gladly take for granted in the modern era. But, it wasn’t always this way. Diphtheria was a dreaded childhood disease that took the lives of approximately 10,000 children in the U.S. in the 1920’s, and polio paralyzed or killed thousands of children in the 1940’s and 50’s.
Today vaccines play an important role in keeping us healthy and preventing diseases like the flu.
At birth babies have some of the mother’s immunity passed on to them, but shortly after birth it is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, and the American Academy of Pediatrics to have children immunized against potentially deadly diseases. As children become social and go to school, vaccinations can help prevent epidemics and pandemics of great public health concern.
So let’s talk about the vaccination schedule currently recommended by the CDC and ACIP.
The first vaccine a child receives at birth is Hepatitis B.
From birth to two months, vaccines are typically given during the baby’s first well visit. These vaccines include:
Their second dose of Hepatitis B
Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis referred to as “DTaP”
Haemophilus influenzae type b-often referred to as “Hib”
and Inactivated poliovirus
At four months old, the baby should receive their second dose of everything that they received at two months, except Hepatitis B.
A baby that is six months old to fifteen months old can get their third dose of:
and inactivated poliovirus
At this time, the child can also receive their first dose of the Flu vaccine.
At one year old, the child can receive vaccinations for:
Measles, Mumps. Rubella also known as MMR
Varicella, and Hepatitis A
At eighteen months old, the child can be given their third dose of Hepatitis B and their fourth dose of DTaP. They can also be given their third dose of the inactivated poliovirus if it was not given at six months.
At four to six years old, the child can receive their fifth dose of DTaP and the poliovirus, and their second dose of MMR and Varicella.
Something to keep in mind is that most vaccinations are given before the age of six. This is to prepare the child for entering school, in the hopes of decreasing the spread of communicable diseases among other children.
At eleven-twelve years old, the child can be given the Meningococcal vaccine and their sixth dose of DTaP.
A second dose of Meningococcal should be given at sixteen years of age. The CDC recommends this due to children between the ages of 16-23 being at the highest risk for meningitis. This is also to prepare the child for “dormitory life” if college is the next step after graduation from high school. Studies have shown people living in close quarters, like college dorms or barracks in the armed forces are at increased risk.
HPV vaccine is also promoted during this time, as there has been a link between human papilloma virus and the incidence of cervical cancer.
There is a great deal of information on administering vaccines safely and effectively. The child should be screened for adverse effects, allergies, and illnesses. The parent and child if applicable, need to be educated on the vaccine itself and what to expect before and after administration. Currently, in the United States, children are vaccinated for approximately 17 preventable diseases. Consent needs to be obtained by the parent or guardian prior to vaccine administration. Any time the child goes to routine doctor visits or is hospitalized is a good time to check and see if vaccinations are up to date. Keeping accurate vaccinations records is also beneficial so that vaccines can be spaced safely apart and caught up if needed.
Thanks for watching this review of Childhood Immunizations! See you next time!