Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Hey guys! Welcome to this counseling video over Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Abraham Maslow, in 1943, wrote this theory in an attempt to rank and prioritize the innate needs of humans. His theory remains a backbone for much of society’s research, training and education.
This hierarchy is most often represented by a pyramid; with, what he thought to be, the most foundational needs at the base of the pyramid, and as you get closer to the top the priority of each need decreases.
It looks something like this:
At the base of the pyramid you have physiological needs. These are needs that are literally required for human survival. If these needs are not met, then the body cannot function; and if left unfulfilled, it will eventually lead to death. Physiological needs include things like air, water, food, clothing, and shelter.
The next step up from physiological needs are safety needs.
If a person’s physiological needs are, for the most part, met, then one’s safety needs are what drive their behavior.
When people experience a lack of physical safety, this can lead to things like Post-traumatic stress disorder. A lack of economic safety can explain why people run towards job security. Safety needs include things like overall health, personal security, and financial security.
When safety needs are met Maslow says that the next thing that they aim to satisfy is their need for belonging. However, Maslow points out that this need would appear to outweigh the need for safety in children. He calls to light a child who clings to an abusive parent as proof of this. If a person’s need for belonging is neglected it can affect their capability to have emotionally deep relationships within friendships, family, and intimate relationships.
The next level in the hierarchy is the need to feel respected, or to have self-esteem. Esteem represents a person’s desire to feel valued and respected by others. Typically, a person with low self-esteem seeks fame or glory to try and fill the void. Maslow believed that certain psychological illnesses, like depression, can affect one’s self-esteem.
Maslow, also, concluded that there are higher versions, and lower versions of esteem. The “lower” being the need for respect from outside of themselves. By this, he meant that someone may be more inclined to feel the need to be recognized, in a good light, by others. The “higher” version takes form in the need for a sense of respect from within. This may mean that they have a strong desire to feel competent, independent, and strong. The “higher” version would rank above the lower in terms of the hierarchy.
After the esteem needs are met, Maslow believed that they would then have the ability to see their full potential. He called this self-actualization. He summed up this top level of the hierarchy with this quote “what a man can be, he must be.” He believed that once a person reached this level, they were able to see that they have potential to be more, and would also develop a drive to become more.
After Maslow completed his theory on the Hierarchy of needs, he eventually came back and amended the top level. He called this self-transcendence. He believed the self could not be fully “actualized” apart from giving oneself over to something outside of themselves.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has been referred to, and used in the implementation of various procedures, and psychological practices all over the world.
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