An Introduction to Cellular Biology | Best Biology Review
The cell is one of the basic building block blocks of all living things. There are many types of cells, but cells are unique to each type of organism. Within the cell are a variety of organelles, groups of complex molecules that help a cell survive. This video breaks down the parts of a cell to help you understand why it exists the way it does.
An Introduction to Cellular Biology
Hi and welcome to this video on cells and what goes on in their nuclei. The cell is the basic organizational unit of all living things. There are many types of different cells, but cells are unique to each type of organism. The one thing that all cells have in common is a membrane, which is like a semipermeable plastic bag.
The membrane is composed of fossil atoms and has some transport holes, which are proteins that help certain molecules and ions move in and out of the cell. The cells fill with the fluid that is called “cytoplasm” or “cytosol”. Within the cell are a variety of organelles, groups of complex molecules that help a cell survive, each with its own unique membrane that has a different chemical makeup from the cell membrane.
The larger the cell, the more organelles it will need to survive. Now, cell structural organization. All cells contain DNA and RNA and can synthesize proteins. Cells are the basic structural units of all organisms. Each cell consists of nucleic acids, cytoplasm, and a cell membrane.
Specialized organelles, like mitochondria and chloroplasts, have specific functions within the cell. Different types of cells have different functions. When many cells of the same type are grouped together, they are collectively called “tissue”. Now, tissues are grouped together in organs.
Organs are grouped together in systems. Now, let’s talk about nuclear parts of a cell. The nucleus, or the plural nuclei. This is a small structure that contains the chromosomes and regulates the DNA of a cell. The nucleus is the defining structure of eukaryotic cells and all eukaryotic cells have a nucleus, which contains genetic material.
The nucleus contains a nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm, nucleolis, nuclear pores, chromatin, and ribosomes. Now, chromosomes. These are highly condensed thread-like rods of DNA. Short for deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA is the genetic material that stores information about the plant or the animal.
What’s chromatin? This consists of the DNA and protein that makes up chromosomes. Nucleolus. This structure, contained within the nucleus, consists of protein. It is small, round, does not have a membrane, it is involved in protein synthesis, and synthesizes and stores RNA (ribonucleic acid). The nuclear envelope.
This encloses the structures of the nucleus. It consists of inner and outer membranes and is made of lipids. Nuclear pores. These are involved in the exchange of materials between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Nucleoplasm. This is a liquid within the nucleus it is similar to cytoplasm.
I hope that is all helpful in understanding the very basics of cells and how they work. For more videos on cellular anatomy, click the links below or right here.
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Last updated: 09/10/2018