Types of Gene Mutation

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Gene Mutation


Gene mutations have several different types. One would be a missense mutation, which is where one segment of DNA is substituted for another segment of DNA, which tells the gene to make a certain amino acid. If it’s a missense mutation, then it’s telling it to make the wrong amino acid. It did code for an amino acid, but the wrong one. This could mess up the chain.


You could also have a nonsense mutation, where, again, a segment of DNA is substituted for the wrong segment of DNA and it doesn’t code for anything. It doesn’t code for an amino acid at all. The chain ends there. It cuts that gene short and could affect the gene function. You also have insertions, which is where a segment of DNA or a base pair is inserted where it doesn’t belong, and it alters the arrangement of base pairs.


It could cause the chain to end early, but it’s definitely going to change what the chain does. The function of that gene, that segment of DNA, is going to be changed. You have deletions as well, where a base pair is just deleted. Most likely the chain is not going to function anymore, and that genetic function is going to fail. There are different types of genetic mutations.


You can have substitutions, where you just have this point substitution, this one area where a segment is changed. You could have insertions and you could have deletions. Sometimes this leads to just that one small incident, and sometimes it leads to a replication. Where there are lots and lots of mutations instead of just the one mutation.


Some causes for gene mutation are environmental causes, such as chemicals that you either ingest or that touch your body, radiation, and ultraviolet light, such as from the sun. If you have too much, or sometimes just any, amount of some of these things, especially chemicals, any amount of certain chemicals, and then too much radiation or ultraviolet light can make your cells mutate.


It isn’t something that happens always, and it isn’t something that you can say “This will specifically happen,” but these are environmental causes linked to gene mutation. Biological causes would be errors made during mitosis and meiosis. These would be something that- certain mutations that might occur in a child whenever the two parents are creating the child.


When that child is forming, and mitosis and meiosis are going on, any kind of hereditary mutations are going to be created in that offspring at that time. You can have environmental causes and biological causes for these gene mutations. Results of the mutations. Well, the original course of that DNA sequence is altered. Now something else is going to happen.


There could be no effect. It could just end. It could not have any effect at all at that DNA chain and that function isn’t carried out. Maybe it wasn’t something very important, so there’s no effect on the organism. It could alter the product of a gene. The gene’s product could come out differently than it was supposed to. It could prevent the gene from functioning properly or completely.


Maybe the gene’s product doesn’t get shipped out at all, or it ships out it’s something that is not supposed to ship out or ships out part of something. The results can be neutral. For instance, a gene mutation in your eye color. You can have brown eyes, blue eyes, green eyes, and the mutation doesn’t harm you or benefit you. Generally, it’s just going to be a difference. It would be a neutral mutation.


You can have harmful mutations, such as that which causes Down syndrome. You’ve got an extra chromosome there. That mutation causes physical and mental problems. Then you can have beneficial mutations, such as that which causes sickle cell disease. In the area where sickle cell disease developed, people that had the sickle cell disease were able to fight off malaria better. It was a survival benefit to have that mutation.


Gene mutations can be caused lots of different ways. There are lots of different types of mutations. While most of them have little benefit or harm to us, there are some that can harm or benefit us. Genetic mutation is something that’s necessary, because it’s what keeps people and/or other organisms evolving and becoming more and more advanced organisms.



Provided by: Mometrix Test Preparation

Last updated: 10/23/2018

 

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