Depending on the state and which grade or subject you want to teach, you will be required to take at least one mandated test. The Praxis exam is just one of the state-mandated exams that, depending on where you live, you may be required to take.
Unlike the Praxis Core exam, which is a test of basic math, reading, and writing skills, the Praxis II exam focuses more on measuring your knowledge in specific subjects. The Praxis II Principles of Learning and Teaching exam measures your knowledge of pedagogy and teaching methods that are required at different levels of education such as early childhood, kindergarten-sixth grade, fifth-ninth grade and seventh-12 grade.
The Praxis II Principles of Learning and Teaching: Early Childhood exam consists of 70 selected-response questions and 4 constructed-response questions. This exam takes two hours to complete. It costs $146 to register for the exam.
Topics Covered on the Praxis II Principles of Learning and Teaching: Early Childhood Exam
1. Students as Learners
a. Student Development and the Learning Process
b. Students as Diverse Learners
c. Student Motivation and Learning Environment
2. Instructional Process
a. Planning Instruction
b. Instructional Strategies
c. Questioning Techniques
d. Communication Techniques
a. Assessment and Evaluation Strategies
b. Assessment Tools
4. Professional Development, Leadership, and Community
The passing score for the Praxis II Principles of Learning and Teaching: Early Childhood depends on which state you are taking the exam for. Each state has their own set passing score.
Praxis II Principles of Learning and Teaching: Early Childhood Practice Questions
1.Of the following, which did John Dewey believe education should ideally be?
a. (b) and (d)
2. When children construct meaning, they may address new information that does not fit into their existing concepts or schemes by either forming a new scheme or changing an existing one. What is this process called?
3. Among speech/language disorders, which category most often includes remediation via surgical procedures?
a. Voice disorders
b. Language disorders
c. Articulation disorders
d. Rate and rhythm disorders
- A: Dewey believed education should NOT be teacher-centered (c) or authoritarian; and also should not be exclusively child-centered (b) or curriculum-centered (d), but rather should include a balance of these latter two.
- D: Like Darwin describing evolution before him, Piaget referred to adaptation (a) in describing how we adjust to our environment. We adapt not only to survive, but to establish, maintain, and restore equilibrium or balance. Piaget called this natural process of seeking balance equilibration (c). The process of adaptation seeks equilibrium. Components of adaptation are assimilation (b), i.e., fitting new but related information into an existing schema, and accommodation (d), i.e., forming a new schema or changing an existing one to fit new and related but very different information. For example, a young child assimilates a new food into his schema for “things I can eat.” Encountering gum, the child accommodates to it by changing that schema to include “things I can chew but not swallow.”
- A: Voice disorders include, among others, impaired voice quality secondary to cleft palate, vocal nodules, or vocal polyps, all three of which can be remediated via surgical procedures to repair clefts, strip nodules, or remove polyps. Language disorders (b) are typically remediated by therapeutic, not surgical, treatment. Articulation disorders (c) are most often remediated by therapy. (Some structural defects can impair articulation and be corrected surgically, but these are rare contrasted with most articulation disorders.) Rate and rhythm disorders (d), i.e., stuttering or cluttering, are also most often remediated with therapy. (A minority of stuttering is caused by nerve damage to the brain and/or vocal cords, which typically cannot be surgically repaired.)